The functional design is based on the analysis of the structural information of the individual molecules and/or substance classes, which can enter the aquatic environment via diverse entry routes as stressors.
In the foreground of the precise syntheses of the hybrid silica gels is the integration of functional groups in the organic subunit, which can undergo irreversible organic-chemical reactions. This can also be induced by a change in the course of the reaction (pH value, temperature, light).
In the area of heavy metal fixation, a complexing reaction additionally moves into focus. This complexation can also be supported by stressors, which act as stabilising chelating ligands, and lead to a complexation of trace metals while simultaneously reducing the stressor concentration. The removal reaction is induced via the reactivity of the functional groups on the stressor and hybrid silica gel.